Australia Geography

by | August 10, 2021

Climate and Weather

There are very different climatic zones and different seasons depending on the north-south extent and the size of the country.

The Australian winter is very pleasant by European standards (low season in Australia). Best time for trips to the outback: April to October.

Seasons: are opposite to those of the northern hemisphere

  • Spring: Sep. until Nov.
  • Summer: Dec. to Feb.
  • Autumn: March to May
  • Winter: June to August

Area around Darwin: tropical hot, 2 seasons, from November to April is the rainy season, high temperatures, high humidity. April to October is the dry season, with July being the coolest month (daytime temperatures between 20 and 30 ° C).

Area around Alice Springs: warm during the day and cold at night (up to 6 ° C falling) from April to October. The average temperatures in the summer months (December to March) are between 20 and 37 ° C. Occasional rains between November and March. Best travel time: May to September.

Perth: ranges from tropical in the north to subtropical in the south. Here you can find a pleasant climate all year round; July is the coldest month with average temperatures of 13 ° C

Area around Adelaide: Moderate, warm climate with long, dry-hot summers and short mild winters. Here, too, July is the coldest month with temperatures between 7 and 15 ° C

Area around Melbourne: pleasant temperatures in spring and autumn with occasional showers, but mainly sunny days. The summer temperatures are between 24 and 30 ° C. The lowest temperatures within the winter months are 13 ° C.

Area around Canberra: Summer and winter offer strong contrasts. From December to February (summer months) the daytime temperatures are around 27 ° C with strong cooling in the evening. From June to August you can find daytime temperatures of up to approx. 12 ° C, sometimes even frost temperatures in the nights.

Area around Sydney: While most of the day, average temperatures are 23 ° C, subtropical climate; The lowest temperatures in winter are around 10 ° C. Warm months with high humidity are from January to March, occasionally with heavy rainfall.

Area around Brisbane and along the Great Barrier Reef:
Brisbane: subtropical, pleasantly warm winter months from June to August; warm to hot with high humidity from December to February. Great Barrier Reef: late April to September / October is the mildest and most pleasant time; Temperatures between 23 and 29 ° C, little rainfall. January to March is the rainy season with heavy rainfall, high humidity and average temperatures between 28 and 31 ° C.

Hobart / Tasmania: Pleasant climate with summer temperatures between 14 and 25 ° C, in winter temperatures between 5 and 16 ° C. At altitudes above 1000 m, snowfall is to be expected in July and August.


Two fifths of the country are in the tropics. According to themakeupexplorer, the Australian bush encompasses a wide variety of landscapes – from rainforests to vast savannas. The center of the continent consists of a plateau covered with deserts and semi-deserts. In contrast, many coastal areas are very fertile; especially the strip of land east of the Great Dividing Range, which stretches from north Queensland to south Victoria. The highest mountain in Australia is Mount Kosciusko (2,230 meters) in the Australian Alps.

Vegetation, plants

Of the around 20,000 native plant species in Australia, around 85% can be found exclusively on this continent. Typical of the Australian vegetation are the eucalyptus and acacia trees. There are over 600 types of both.

Animals, animal species

The marsupials are typical representatives of the Australian fauna. Well-known representatives are the kangaroos with over 40 species, the koala, the wombat, the marsupial devil, the bag mouse and the genus of the climbing bag (possums). Egg-laying mammals (monotons), which are unique to Australia and New Guinea, are unique in the world.

Australia currency and money

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)
1 AUD = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
1 EUR = 1.57 AUD
1 AUD = 0.64 EUR
1 CHF = 1.45 AUD
1 AUD = 0.69 CHF

The currency in Australia is the Australian dollar (AUD). The median rate is currently around AUD 1.57 to EUR 1 (January 2021). In 2008 there was a temporary depreciation of the AUD against the euro. Otherwise the AUD is stable.

Australia was the first country to completely replace the paper in its banknotes with plastic. These banknotes offer better security against counterfeiting and have a longer shelf life than paper money.

The Australian currency consists of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents coins, one and two dollars and banknotes of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dollars face value. One AUD (Australian dollar) = 100 cents.

Australia currency


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Labour market

Australia has a stable economy. Skilled workers are sought in many areas of the economy or training positions are also offered.

There is an urgent need for skilled workers in Western Australia. The so-called “skill shortage” has assumed great proportions in the state. A recent statistic from the Australian Immigration Service shows that the number of new immigrants in Western Australia fell by a full ten percent in the past financial year. Many positions are therefore vacant.

If you want to work in Australia, you need a visa with labor rights. Different Australian visa classes offer different types of labor rights. These can be limited in time (e.g. to several months) as well as locally (e.g. to a certain geographical area in Australia) – see Australia Visa for Emigrants.

Good English is another basic requirement for starting a job.


Income tax

Those who work in Australia are subject to income tax. Even short-term jobs must therefore apply for a tax number from the Australian tax office. The tax is then automatically withheld from wages or income and paid by the employer to the tax office.

The tax rates are graded progressively. If you have Visa 417 (Working Holiday) or 462 (Work and Holiday), the marginal tax rate is 19% on income up to A $ 37,000. Income up to 80,000 austral. Dollars are taxed at 32.5% annually (whether with a short or long-term visa). The top tax rate is 45% (income from AUD 180,001). Taxes paid too much can be returned after filing a tax return.

For more information and the latest tax rates, please contact the Australian Tax Office:


Health insurance

In Australia there is a dual system of public and private health insurance. The state health insurance, Medicare, is financed through contributions that are automatically included in the (income) tax rates.

According to German standards, the contributions are very low (2017/2018: 2% of gross wages). For this, the benefits of Medicare are severely limited. Visits to the dentist and patient transport, for example, are not included at all. For other services you have to z. T. to pay heavily.

All Australian citizens are insured. Anyone who has a permanent residence permit is not obliged to pay insurance tax. If you only have a temporary visa, you are not covered by Medicare. (Exception: citizens of some countries with special agreements; Germany is unfortunately not one of them.) Therefore, the contribution does not have to be paid.

Insurance through a private insurance company is also recommended for Medicare beneficiaries. For everyone else, private insurance is the only way to go anyway. For shorter stays in the country, a German international health insurance is easiest. Anyone who takes a language course or an internship must also prove that he or she has health insurance.

Official information on the Australian health system is available from the Department of Health and Aging: